Following a diet is a prerequisite for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. By following basic principles of a healthy diet, you can reduce the risk of complications with type 1 diabetes and help the body produce insulin for type 2 disease. However, the main purpose of the diet is to maintain normal blood sugar levels.
Basic principles of nutrition in diabetes mellitus
For diabetes mellitus, the diet should be balanced and contain proteins, fats and carbohydrates. The main goal of the diet is the normalization of metabolism. This not only lowers blood sugar levels, but also helps you lose weight, which is especially important for overweight people. When putting together a menu for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, the following rules should be observed:
- Meals should be fractionated, up to 5-6 times a day, but in small portions. Eat 3 full meals and 2-3 light snacks daily. To avoid a sharp drop in blood sugar levels, always carry an apple or biscuit with you. Breakfast should be within an hour of waking up and the last meal should be 3-4 hours before bedtime.
- Eat on schedule, at certain times and at regular intervals. This makes it easier to calculate the insulin dose and ensures a steady rise in blood sugar without sudden fluctuations.
- For people with diabetes, fiber and fiber are important.They are found in fresh vegetables. Their use does not cause a sharp increase in blood sugar levels, helps in weight loss and normalizes the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.
- When shopping for groceries, give preference to lean meat.The diet should not contain more than 30% fat. Most of this volume is made up of vegetable fats.
- Sugary foods are completely excluded from the diet. They cause a sharp rise in blood sugar and are therefore forbidden for diabetics.
In general, diet in diabetes is no different from proper diet (PP). It is based on the principles of PP, the aim of which is to accelerate the metabolism, reduce weight and improve the general condition of the body.
When putting together a diet, the existing comorbidities must be taken into account. For example, with kidney disease, salt is excluded or limited, with gastritis with high acidity - fermented milk products.
Diet for Type 1 Diabetes
With insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes mellitus, the focus is on substitution therapy. The patient receives insulin injections every day, as it is not produced by the pancreas against the background of beta cell death. Modern insulin therapy enables diabetics to regulate their diet independently of hunger and satiety. Many people mistakenly believe that the injected insulin enables food to be absorbed in any shape or amount. Diabetes patients don't even limit themselves to sweet and fatty foods and eat like a healthy person. However, such an attitude towards one's own body is unacceptable. In fact, the injected drug makes up for the insulin deficiency needed to regulate carbohydrate metabolism. But if a special diet is not followed, the drug may not be able to perform its tasks. For example, sweets cause blood sugar to rise. And if a small dose of insulin is injected, a hyperglycemic coma or acute liver failure can occur. Diet is vital and healthy for people with type 1 diabetes. It is created together with a doctor based on the latest test results, blood sugar levels, age and the presence of chronic diseases.
Bread unit of the products
For type 1 diabetes, a low-carbohydrate diet is formulated that includes counting bread units (BU). One XE is equivalent to 10-12 grams of carbohydrates. The insulin dose is calculated based on the value obtained. For each unit of bread, 1 unit of insulin is injected. The dosage is adjusted depending on the time of day:
- in the morning - 1, 5-2 units;
- Day - 1-1, 5 U;
- Evening - 0, 8-1 a. m.
You can calculate the number of bread units yourself. To do this, however, you need to know how many carbohydrates are in 100 grams. Product. For example 100gr. Cottage cheese contains 24 grams of carbohydrates. In a pack of 200gr. - 48gr. Carbohydrates. It turns out that if in 1 XE 12 gr. Of carbohydrates, then in a pack of cottage cheese 4 XE. One bread unit increases blood sugar by 2. 77 mmol / l. And to process 1 XE, it takes 1. 4 U of insulin. Taking into account these indicators, the dosage of the injected drug is calculated.
Patients with diabetes must adhere to the daily norm of XE - it corresponds to 18-24. You cannot eat more than 7 XE for a meal.
To make it easier to calculate bread units when building a low-carbohydrate diet, you can use a special table. It contains staple foods.
|product||Quantity in 1 XE|
|Rye bread, white, uncooked rolls||20gr.|
|Milk, natural yogurt, kefir, yogurt||250ml.|
|Cottage cheese mass with sugar||100 g|
|Dumplings (semi-finished product)||50gr.|
|All cereals raw||1 tablespoon|
|Mashed potatoes with milk||2 tablespoons|
|Apple juice||100 ml|
Glycemic Index of Food
Another indicator to consider when composing a low-carbohydrate diet is the Glycemic Index of Food (GI). It is the rate at which blood sugar levels rise after a meal. Diabetics must choose low GI foods. They ensure an even flow of glucose into the bloodstream and prevent sudden increases in blood sugar levels during the day. The glycemic index is divided into 3 types:
- low - up to 50 units;
- medium - from 50 to 69 units;
- high - over 70 units.
For type 1 diabetes, choose foods with medium to low GI. The maximum GI value should not exceed 72 units.
The table contains a list of approved foods and their GIs.
|GI type||product||Glycemic index in units|
|Boiled jacket potatoes||65|
High GI foods are strictly prohibited. This includes all sweets, sausages, muffins, fried foods. They increase blood sugar levels dramatically and contribute to weight gain that is unacceptable in diabetes.
Diet for Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes mellitus most often occurs on the background of obesity. The main feature of the menu is the selection of low GI and low XE products. In the case of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus of the second type, diet is of the utmost importance. By following the basic principles of a healthy diet, you can prevent blood sugar spikes and complications. The type 2 diabetes diet has three functions:
- Normalization of metabolism, acceleration of metabolism for weight loss.
- Maintaining normal glucose levels.
- Restoration of damaged pancreatic tissue.
Particular attention is paid to comorbidities. For example, high blood pressure requires the use of blood thinning foods. In order to lower blood sugar and normalize weight, a diabetic needs to count calories.
For type 2 diabetes mellitus that does not require insulin, the same rules must be followed as for the diet developed for type 1 diabetes patients.
In the second type of diabetes mellitus, if the patient is overweight, a low-carbohydrate diet No. 8 is indicated, which implies strict limits on the amount of carbohydrates, animal fats and salt consumed. Reduce hunger pangs by using non-starchy vegetables, unsweetened fruits, and drinking water regularly.
Diet "table number 9" for diabetes
Not all types of diets are allowed for people with diabetes. The diet is designed to promote weight loss in type 2 and prevent the development of ketoacidosis in type 1. Mono diets, keto diets and other foods are prohibited, the principle of which is the rejection of fats, proteins or carbohydrates. In the case of diabetes mellitus, the diet "Table number 9" is displayed. Food with a high glycemic index and a high proportion of bread units is avoided. A diet according to this system cannot be called monotonous, but an important requirement is a change in eating habits. We have to do without fast food, fried and fatty food, and sweets.
The Low Carb Diet Table 9 was developed for type 1 diabetes. It has no therapeutic effects, but it does help maintain normal glucose levels.
The table contains lists of permitted and prohibited products.
|Mushrooms||Salted fatty fish|
|flesh||Fatty meat (goose, duck, pork, lamb)|
|Brown and red rice||alcohol|
|Low-fat milk and fermented milk products||Hot spices|
An approximate menu for the day looks like this:
- The first breakfast is millet porridge with milk.
- Second breakfast - natural yogurt, apple.
- Lunch - rabbit soup with zucchini and buckwheat, salad from cabbage and cucumber, seasoned with vegetable oil.
- Afternoon snack - cottage cheese casserole with berries.
- Dinner - a piece of steamed salmon, a salad from boiled vegetables.
- Late dinner - kefir.
A low-carbohydrate diet for diabetes will not leave you starving. The diet will be balanced, filling, and nutritious.
Many people believe that a low-carbohydrate diet is highly restrictive and makes you eat lean and monotonous. In fact, there are a variety of recipes for dishes that have a high taste and are safe for diabetics. The following products will help diversify the usual menu:
- Berry. The diabetic diet involves eating berries instead of sugary foods. Add berries to cottage cheese, cook smoothies and mousses with them, add cheesecakes and casseroles to sweeten the dish. This natural product has a low glycemic index, prevents cardiovascular diseases and saturates the body with important trace elements.
- Olive oil.Vegetable fats high in omega-3 must be included in a diabetic's diet. And the best option is olive oil. It participates in the processes of lipid metabolism, prevents retinopathies and slows down aging. Olive oil is good for overweight and mood-enhancing.
- Cinnamon.It has anti-inflammatory effects, lowers blood sugar and improves the taste of food. Add cinnamon to diet pancakes, cheesecakes, and other desserts.
- Cabbage.Green vegetables must be present in a diabetic's diet. And the leader among them is Kohl. A large amount of fiber in the composition slows down the rise in blood sugar levels, reducing it to physiological norms. In addition, cabbage is rich in vitamins that are necessary to strengthen the immune system.
- Salmon.Fish should be included in a diabetic's diet. Salmon occupies a leading position in terms of the number of beneficial properties. This fish contains omega-3 fatty acids that prevent cardiovascular disease from developing.
Here is an example of a weekly menu for type 1 diabetes:
An approximate meal plan for a week with type 2 diabetes looks like this:
Fried eggs with cheese
If you follow suit, your low-carb diet will help keep your glucose levels under control and keep you from feeling uncomfortable with your own diet.
A different menu is prepared for each day. Eat a variety of foods to make your meal enjoyable.
A low-carbohydrate diet for diabetes mellitus allows the use of foods with a low glycemic index and XE. These include:
- Whole wheat bread;
- Rye bread;
- Buckwheat and oatmeal;
- red and brown rice;
- lean meat - rabbit, turkey, beef, veal;
- low-fat types of fish - cod, hake, pikeperch, salmon, salmon, pike, etc. ;
- seafood - squid, shrimp, mussels, crabs;
- high quality flour noodles;
- Legumes - beans, peas, lentils, chickpeas;
- dairy products - kefir, fermented baking milk, natural yogurt, yogurt, low-fat milk;
- vegetables - cabbage, lettuce, radish, tomatoes, cucumber, zucchini, eggplant, pumpkin;
- Dried fruit;
- Tea, coffee, compotes, juices, jelly (without sugar);
- Soy sauce;
- low-fat cheese;
- Sesame seeds, sunflower seeds and pumpkin;
- Vegetable fat.
Certain foods tend to lower blood sugar levels. They should not be used in conjunction with drugs that regulate glucose in the body. These include:
- Grapefruit in pure form and in juice;
- Jerusalem artichoke;
- Rose hip;
- Cabbage juice;
- Garlic, parsley, celery;
- St. John's wort, dandelion, nettle.
Go on a diet based on the approved foods.
Below is a list of prohibited foods that should not be consumed on a diabetic diet. Make sure you take this into account when creating the menu. The following foods are completely excluded from the diet:
- Sugar and sugary foods;
- White bread;
- spicy, pickled, smoked and heavily salted foods;
- fatty meat - pork, lamb, chicken skin, lard;
- potatoes (allowed no more than 2 times a week);
- Store mayonnaise, ketchup, mustard;
- high-carbohydrate cereals - semolina, millet, rice;
- Box juices;
- sweet drinks;
- Products based on fructose.
What should not be used in diabetes mellitus depends on the patient's condition. With severe obesity, sweet fruits are contraindicated - bananas, grapes, melons. The diet for diabetes mellitus is compiled by the attending physician, taking into account the individual health characteristics of the patient.
Diet for diabetes for pregnant women
During pregnancy, a woman should follow general dietary guidelines for diabetics. It is possible to adjust the insulin dose taking into account the glucose values. If gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy, it is important to adjust your diet so that your blood sugar does not rise. At the same time, doctors allow a less strict, low-carbohydrate diet, which allows the use of potatoes and sweet fruits. But diet should be coupled with regular blood sugar tests. If glucose rises during gestational diabetes, regardless of adherence to a low-carbohydrate diet, insulin injections are also prescribed.
Diet for diabetes in children
Treatment of diabetes mellitus in children is carried out under the supervision of an endocrinologist. Insulin injections are prescribed, which must be administered strictly according to the schedule, they are linked to the feeding times. An error of 10-15 minutes is allowed. Meals for children with diabetes mellitus are organized taking into account the following rules:
- In the first year of life, the main food is breast milk. It is important to maintain breastfeeding for up to 1. 5-2 years.
- Feeding should be done strictly on the hour, not on a free schedule.
- If the child is bottle-fed, a mixture with a low sugar content is selected for him.
- A small mistake is allowed when organizing meals by the hour. You can feed your baby earlier than the scheduled time.
Children of elementary school and school age are assigned a low-carbohydrate diet, which has its own characteristics:
- Potatoes, sour cream, egg yolks should be kept to a minimum;
- Cereal porridge can be boiled once a day;
- Soups can be cooked in low-fat broths;
- in the daily diet, the presence of vegetables and fruits is mandatory.
The low-carbohydrate diet of children with diabetes mellitus is not much different from that of an adult.
Physical activity is also very important. If a child of 7 years old has chronic diseases, then exercise is only possible with the permission of a doctor. What a low-carbohydrate diet should be depends on the individual characteristics of the little patient. Age, weight, state of health and type of diabetes are taken into account. Together with the doctor, a detailed nutrition plan is drawn up that must be followed. Parents need to be aware that often diabetes does not manifest itself at an early stage. Symptoms may be absent with a latent course. And if the child has a predisposition to this disease, then the diet will help prevent the disease from getting worse. When parents have diabetes, their children's diets need special control.